Period of the duration


Axis units

Allied units

Short description of operation

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from 8 th September to 28 th October 1944
Poland and Slovakia ( Eastern Slovakia )

Army group Heinrici (1 st German Tank Army and 1 st Hungarian Army): 68 th , 75 th , 78 th , 208 th , 357th, 359 th and 545 th German Infantry Divisions; 1 st , 8 th and 24 th German Tank Divisions; 101 st German Jäger Division; 1 st German Ski Jäger Division and part of 544 th German Infantry Division.

Army Group Commander: gen. G. Heinrici

Casualties (KIA, MIA, WIA): 30,000 soldiers approx.



38 th Army of Red Army (52 nd , 67 th and 101 st Infantry Corps; 1 st Guard Cavalry Corps; 25 th and 31 st Tank Corps; 4 th Guard Tank Corps; 1 st Czechoslovak Army Corps): 14 th and 70 th Guard Infantry Divisions; 127 th , 305 th , 304 th , 140 th , 183 rd , 241 st , 211 th , 359 th , 340 th and 121 st Infantry Divisions; 111 th and 242 nd Tank Brigades; 1 st Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade; 2 nd Czechoslovak Airborne Brigade; 3 rd Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade and 1 st Czechoslovak Tank Brigade.

Army Commander: gen. K. S. Moskalenko

Casualties (KIA, MIA, WIA): 90,000 soldiers approx.



The main goal of the Operation was to capture the town of Prešov at the territory of Slovakia within 5 days and this manner to help the fighters of Slovak National Uprising which began at the territory of Slovakia on 29 th August 1944 (more information in the section “Facts about Slovak National Uprising”).

After sharp bombardment the first wave of attack was focused to capture the town of Krosno but this goal was not achieved which caused a lot of following difficulties on the side of Allied units. Soviet and Czechoslovak forces advanced toward first German defense position established on the hills near of villages Wrocanka and Machnówka where took place the fist serious combat with German forces. Especially, the 3 rd Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade suffered serious casualties caused by counter-attacking German infantry and tank units.

Moreover, one of the biggest clashes of the Operation happened around and on Hill 534 in the northwest from the town of Dukla . This hill had big strategic value for both sides involved in the Operation. The battle to capture this hill lasted from 10 th September to 20 th September 1944 . During these days the hill changed its “owners” more than 20 times. On 20 th September 1944 Germans retreated to the town of Dukla . The next strategic point of German defense was Hill 694 “Hyrowa Hora”.

1 st Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade supported by 4 tanks of

1 st Czechoslovak Tank Brigade in order to capture this hill carried out marvelous attack on 22 nd September 1944 with a positive result. Germans were surprised attacking tanks because their usage was not expected in terms of a severe terrain. The town of Dukla was seized on 21 st September 1944 by 3 rd Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade supported by tanks of 4 th Soviet Guard Tank Corps and 140 th Soviet Infantry Division on the left flank.

After a short rest and reorganization of Allied troops the Operation continued by the attack straightforward to the former Czechoslovak State Border. The combat to seize the Dukla´s Pass directly at the former state border began on 27 th September 1944 . At the state border Germans built up the second defense position with many of trenches, wooden bunkers, minefields and obstacles against infantry, armored vehicles and tanks. The state border and Dukla´s Pass was captured on 6 th October 1944 .

From the state border German units retreated to the third defense position which was established 6 kilometers in the south behind the state border with the centre of defense on Hill 532 “Obšár”. This defense position was prepared the best way within the Operation with many of wooden bunkers and machine guns´ pillboxes and foxholes. German artillery batteries were very effective used because their spotters were dressed in civil clothes equipped the radio and they were infiltrated in local population living in the small villages near Dukla´s Pass. All roads and paths were heavily mined. During this Operation in the fist time of history WWII were massively used German anti-tanks weapons famous under the name “Panzerfaust” and “Panzerschreck”.

The battle to capture Hill 532 “Obšár” started as soon as Allied forces crossed the state border. The Operation finished on 28 th October 1944 bellow the summit of Hill 532 “Obšár” because of Slovak National Uprising failed. The hill was definitively secured as late as on 25 th November 1944 , too late.


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